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Generalized Muscle Inflammation (Generalized Inflammatory Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis) in dogs

Description
Polymyositis is an inflammatory process that damages affected muscles. This inflammatory change is associated with an accumulation of a specific type of cell in the muscle tissue. The term dermatomyositis is used when polymyositis is associated with characteristic skin lesions.



Additional information


Definition
Polymyositis is a condition in which skeletal muscles are damaged by a nonsuppurative inflammatory process dominated by lymphocytic infiltration. The term dermatomyositis is used when polymyositis is associated with characteristic skin lesions.

Pathophysiology
Inflammation of skeletal muscles results in muscle weakness, myalgia, and atrophy. Muscle inflammation may be a result of immune-mediated, infectious, or paraneoplastic disorders or it may be a sequellae to certain drug therapies.

Systems Affected
- Neuromuscular--generalized muscle involvement including masticatory and limb muscles - Gastrointestinal--in particular the pharyngeal and esophageal muscles because they are composed predominantly of skeletal muscle in the dog - Skin/exocrine--in particular if related to a generalized immune-mediated connective tissue disorder

Genetics
- Unknown; however, as with autoimmune diseases in, general, the appropriate genetic background must present - Dermatomyositis in rough coated collies and Shetland sheepdogs has been reported to have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.

Incidence/Prevalence
Unknown; however, generalized inflammatory myopathies are not common
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