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Bluetongue in Cattle, Sheep and Goats (Sore muzzle, pseudo foot-and-mouth disease, muzzle disease)

Description
Bluetongue is an insect-spread disease of ruminants characterised by inflammation of mucous membranes, congestion, swelling and haemorrhages. The disease is variable in severity. Sheep are generally the worst affected, with cattle having milder disease. In some parts of the world, infection without clinical disease is recognised.





Sheep. There is bilateral nasal exudate, erosion of the nasal planum, and excessive salivation.






Bovine. The muzzle is covered by an adherent crust, and the underlying (eroded) tissue is hyperemic (bloody)
Bluetongue is spread by small biting midges. It is not transmitted by direct or indirect contact between animals in the absence of the insects. Rarely virus may be excreted in the semen when males are viraemic. Contaminated semen may infect recipient cows but would be unlikely to establish in an area unless abundant vectors were present.



Additional information




Bluetongue is an infectious, noncontagious arthropodborne viral disease primarily of domestic and wild ruminants. Infection with bluetongue virus is common worldwide but is usually subclinical or mild in most infected ruminants. Bluetongue is almost exclusively a disease of sheep, particularly the fine-wool and mutton breeds, although white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ), and pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana ) and desert bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) may develop severe clinical disease in North America.Bluetongue is an insect-spread disease of ruminants characterised by inflammation of mucous membranes, congestion, swelling and haemorrhages. The disease is variable in severity. Sheep are generally the worst affected, with cattle having milder disease. In some parts of the world, infection without clinical disease is recognised. Bluetongue is spread by small biting midges. It is not transmitted by direct or indirect contact between animals in the absence of the insects. Rarely virus may be excreted in the semen when males are viraemic. Contaminated semen may infect recipient cows but would be unlikely to establish in an area unless abundant vectors were present.
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