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Lungworm Infection (Verminous bronchitis, Verminous pneumonia)

Description
An infection of the lower respiratory tract, usually resulting in bronchitis or pneumonia, can be caused by any of several parasitic nematodes, including Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle and deer; D arnfieldi in donkeys and horses; D filaria , Protostrongylus rufescens , and Muellerius capillaris in sheep and goats; Metastrongylus apri in pigs; Oslerus (Filaroides) osleri in dogs; and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila in cats. Other lungworm infections occur but are less common.

DOG:
OSLERUS OSLERI is the common lungworm of dogs but CRENOSOMA VULPIS and CAPILLARIA AEROPHILA can spread to dogs from wild carnivores and FILAROIDES HIRTHI has caused clinical signs. Coughing is the major sign and systemic illness is not present unless there is severe airway obstruction. Parasitic granulomas of the trachea due to O. OSLERI can lead to partial occlusion of the airway.





Oslerus osleri cysts


CAT:
AELUROSTRONGYLUS ABSTRUSUS is the major lungworm of the cat. CAPILLARIA AEROPHILA can affect cats and is subclinical in most cases. Most affected cats show little disease because lesions regress as immunity increases, but severe infections can cause signs. Because a host such as a bird, frog or rodent must be eaten by the cat to transmit ALEUROSTRONGULUS animals that hunt outdoors are at risk.





Aelurostrongylus abstrusus


HORSE:
DICTYOCAULUS ARNFIELDI is the equine lungworm. Over 10% of horses in central Kentucky had lungworm at necropsy. Baermann technique for examination of feces for larvae is unreliable for diagnosis in horses due to many nonpatent infections, but larvae are passed by donkeys; must control lungworm in donkeys grazing with horses. Might see larvae in centrifuged mucus from a tracheal wash.





Dictyocaulus arnfieldi


SHEEP and GOATS:
DICTYOCAULUS FILARIA and PROTOSTRONGYLUS RUFESCENS are the lung parasites which are most pathogenic; they cause similar signs. Other lungworms are prevalent in grazing sheep and goats but appear to be relatively innocuous even though there have been reports of clinical signs with very heavy infections. Clinical signs are worse in young animals.





Dictyocaulus Filaria






Protostrongylus Rufescens


CATTLE:
DICTYOCAULUS VIVIPARUS is the common lungworm of cattle. Infection is by ingestion of larvae; the disease is most common in calves on pasture for the first time. There is often a deep moist cough.





Dictyocaulus viviparus in situ
SWINE: METASTRONGYLUS is the lungworm of swine; signs of disease are usually minimal.





Metastrongylus apri

Additional information


An infection of the lower respiratory tract, usually resulting in bronchitis or pneumonia, can be caused by any of several parasitic nematodes, including Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle and deer; D arnfieldi in donkeys and horses; D filaria , Protostrongylus rufescens , and Muellerius capillaris in sheep and goats; Metastrongylus apri in pigs; Oslerus (Filaroides) osleri in dogs; and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila in cats. Other lungworm infections occur but are less common. The first 3 lungworms listed above belong to the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea and have direct life cycles; the others belong to the Metastrongyloidea and, except for O osleri and C aerophila , have indirect life cycles. Some nematodes that inhabit the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation, eg, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis , both found in dogs in certain areas of the world, may be associated with pulmonary disease. Clinical signs relating to a cardiac or a pulmonary syndrome or to a combination of both may occur. Diseases caused by the 3 Dictyocaulus spp are of most economic importance. The cattle lungworm D viviparus is common in northwest Europe and is the cause of severe outbreaks of “husk” or “hoose” in young (and more recently, older) grazing cattle. The lungworm of goats and sheep, D filaria , is comparatively less pathogenic but does cause losses, especially in Mediterranean countries, although it is also recognized as a pathogen in Australia, Europe, and North America. D arnfieldi can cause severe coughing in horses and, because patency is unusual in horses (but not in donkeys), differential diagnosis with disease due to other respiratory diseases can be difficult. M capillaris is prevalent worldwide and, while usually nonpathogenic in sheep, can cause severe signs in goats. Other lungworm infections cause occasional sporadic infections in many animal species in many countries.

DOG:
OSLERUS OSLERI is the common lungworm of dogs but CRENOSOMA VULPIS and CAPILLARIA AEROPHILA can spread to dogs from wild carnivores and FILAROIDES HIRTHI has caused clinical signs. Coughing is the major sign and systemic illness is not present unless there is severe airway obstruction. Parasitic granulomas of the trachea due to O. OSLERI can lead to partial occlusion of the airway.





Oslerus osleri cysts


CAT:
AELUROSTRONGYLUS ABSTRUSUS is the major lungworm of the cat. CAPILLARIA AEROPHILA can affect cats and is subclinical in most cases. Most affected cats show little disease because lesions regress as immunity increases, but severe infections can cause signs. Because a host such as a bird, frog or rodent must be eaten by the cat to transmit ALEUROSTRONGULUS animals that hunt outdoors are at risk.





Aelurostrongylus abstrusus


HORSE:
DICTYOCAULUS ARNFIELDI is the equine lungworm. Over 10% of horses in central Kentucky had lungworm at necropsy. Baermann technique for examination of feces for larvae is unreliable for diagnosis in horses due to many nonpatent infections, but larvae are passed by donkeys; must control lungworm in donkeys grazing with horses. Might see larvae in centrifuged mucus from a tracheal wash.





Dictyocaulus arnfieldi


SHEEP and GOATS:
DICTYOCAULUS FILARIA and PROTOSTRONGYLUS RUFESCENS are the lung parasites which are most pathogenic; they cause similar signs. Other lungworms are prevalent in grazing sheep and goats but appear to be relatively innocuous even though there have been reports of clinical signs with very heavy infections. Clinical signs are worse in young animals.



Dictyocaulus Filaria





Protostrongylus Rufescens


CATTLE:
DICTYOCAULUS VIVIPARUS is the common lungworm of cattle. Infection is by ingestion of larvae; the disease is most common in calves on pasture for the first time. There is often a deep moist cough.





Dictyocaulus viviparus in situ
SWINE: METASTRONGYLUS is the lungworm of swine; signs of disease are usually minimal.





Metastrongylus apri
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